Ebola disease in other words is known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in humans through human-to-human transmission. Symptoms are visible from 2 to 21 days after the Ebola virus has entered the body. Common Ebola symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea and rash are usually followed, and the parts most affected are liver and kidneys. There comes a point when the affected person starts bleeding internally and externally. Ebola disease was first identified near river Ebola in Congo in 1976. Peter Piot was the young scientist from Belgium who was in the team that discovered Ebola.
Ebola Case Count, Reports
World health organization (WHO), between 1976 and 2013 has reported 24 outbreaks involving 1,716 cases. In 2014, West African countries Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Guinea struggled with the worst Ebola outbreak. Till 2015, Ebola outbreak has reported 25,263 cases involving 10,477 deaths.
When Ebola virus disease (EVD) is suspected in a person, then lab test is carried out. The non-specific indicators include low platelet count, an initially decreased WBC count with an increased WBC count, blood clotting and increased level of liver enzymes. The specific diagnosis involves isolating the virus and detecting antibodies in the person’s blood against that virus Ebola is a highly contagious disease with a high risk of death therefore the people who are involved in the treatment of infected patients should wear protective clothing including masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles. No part of their body shall be exposed to the infection otherwise there is a high risk of getting infected with the disease. The same preventive measures should be followed by those who are involved in handling the instruments and objects contaminated by infected person’s body fluid.
A specific training regarding the proper suit up should be given to everyone involved with the patient either directly or indirectly. WHO has recommended education to general public regarding the disease and the preventive measures.
Current Ebola Treatment
The patient is kept in complete isolation which can to a extent avoid the disease to be transmitted to other individual. The surfaces can be disinfected by use of alcohol based products, detergents, bleach at appropriate concentrations. The needles and syringes used in the treatment shall be disposed properly and any kind of contact with them shall be avoided after the disposal. The waste should also be disposed off in a way with no contact to the living otherwise there is a risk of getting infected.
Patients may develop electrolyte disturbances like hyponatremia and hpokalemia which shall be taken care of. Frequent repletion of electrolytes to be carried out to prevent cardiac arrhythmias. A very intensive nursing will be required to detect the changing conditions of the patients so that medication can be changed accordingly. There is no specific treatment for Ebola virus, although a number of researches are being carried out regarding its cure. Certain treatments which result in improved outcomes includes oral rehydration therapy and consumption of intravenous fluids. Oral rehydration therapy requires to drink slightly sweetened and salty water. If a person with the Ebola infection dies, direct contact with the body should be avoided and a proper protective barrier shall be between the body and the living.
ZMapp is an experimental medicine which is under development by Mapp Biopharmaceuticals as a treatment for Ebola disease. It was first tested on human in 2014 during the West African outbreak. But it has not been yet tested enough in humans to prove it an efficient medicine against the infection. Research is still going on regarding it and its development is under process. Other vaccines are also being evaluated and study is going on related to Ebola surface glycoprotein. During the 2014 outbreak in West Africa, the transmission of Ebola virus was controlled in several areas. This was due to the proper resources available, proper health centers, and correct knowledge about the disease.